What is Thyroid Cancer | Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

thyroid cancer-symptoms-causes-treatment-Dr. Ashish Pokharkar-Cancer surgeon in PCMC-Pune

Introduction: Thyroid cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the cells of the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck. This gland produces hormones that regulate your metabolism. Thyroid hormones also help control your body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. A type of endocrine cancer known as thyroid cancer has an excellent cure rate and is one of the most common cancers. In this blog post, we will review thyroid cancer symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

 Thyroid Cancer Symptoms

Thyroid cancer often presents with subtle symptoms or may be asymptomatic in its early stages. Common symptoms include:

Nodule Formation: Presence of a lump or nodule in the thyroid gland.

Hoarseness and Voice Changes: Difficulty speaking or changes in voice tone.

Difficulty Swallowing: Feeling of a persistent lump in the throat.

Neck Pain and Swelling: Discomfort or swelling in the neck region.

Causes of Thyroid Cancer

While the exact cause of thyroid cancer is not always clear, several risk factors may contribute, such as:

Genetic Factors: Family history of thyroid cancer may increase the risk.

Radiation Exposure: Previous exposure to radiation, especially during childhood.

Gender and Age: Women and individuals over 30 years old are more susceptible.

Certain Health Conditions: Conditions like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis may elevate the risk.

Diagnosis and Staging

Diagnosing thyroid cancer involves a combination of physical examinations, imaging tests, and biopsy. Staging helps determine the extent of cancer spread and guides treatment decisions.

Types of Thyroid Cancer

There are several types of thyroid cancer, with the most common being papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Understanding the specific type is crucial for tailoring an effective treatment plan.

Thyroid Cancer Treatment Options

Thyroid cancer treatment depends on factors such as cancer type, stage, and overall health. Common treatment modalities include:

Surgery: Removal of the thyroid gland or affected nodules.

Radioactive Iodine Therapy: Used to destroy remaining cancer cells.

Hormone Replacement Therapy: Balancing hormone levels after surgery.

Prognosis and Follow-Up: Thyroid cancer generally has a favorable prognosis, especially when diagnosed early. Regular follow-up appointments and monitoring hormone levels are essential for managing long-term outcomes.


It is important to understand that thyroid cancer is a complex condition with a wide range of symptoms, causes, and treatment options. The chances of a successful outcome are significantly increased by early detection and a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. For proper diagnosis and management of thyroid-related issues, it is crucial to consult a healthcare professional, such as Dr. Ashish Pokharkar, a renowned thyroid cancer surgeon at PCMC.